(a division of the Chambon Foundation)
dedicated to exploring and communicating
the American experience of the Holocaust
While the world
Varian Fry led the most determined and successful
private American rescue operation of the Nazi era.
Upcoming in 2013...
We said we didn't know.
We said we couldn't have done anything even if we had known.
Meet Peter Bergson!
Peter Bergson, a militant Jew from Palestine,
led a controversial American effort to fight the Holocaust.
This is his testimony.
The work-in-progress was screened as a short at film festivals and other special events.
Winner, documentary award, Toronto Jewish Film Festival
Invited to Jerusalem, Warsaw, Toronto, Zagreb...
About Varian Fry and other Americans who cared
Mary Jayne Gold
prior to World War II
Varian Fry (1907-1967) in Marseille in 1941
No stamp for the 100th anniversary of his birth.
prior to World War II
Charles Fawcett (1915-2008)
in Ambulance Corps uniform
Hiram Bingham IV (1903-1988)
righteous vice-consul in 1940-41, stamp issued in May 2006
In a challenging time, Varian Fry, Miriam Davenport Ebel, Mary Jayne Gold, Charles Fawcett, Leon Ball and Hiram Bingham IV, were Americans who joined with others in the U.S. and in Marseille, France, to further brotherhood from sea to shining sea...
We believe that at least seven non-Jews who worked with Varian Fry in Marseille would be worthy of joining Varian Fry as Righteous Among the Nations, a distinction granted by Israel's Yad Vashem memorial:
- Leon F. Ball, USA
- Daniel Bénédite, France
- Hiram Bingham IV, USA
- Miriam Davenport Ebel, USA
- Charles Fawcett, USA
- Jean Gemähling, France
- Mary Jayne Gold, USA
In February 1941, in Marseille, France, an American wrote to his wife back in
Among the people who have come into my office, or with whom I am in constant correspondence, are not only some of the greatest living authors, painters, sculptors of Europe . . . but also former cabinet ministers and even prime ministers of half a dozen countries. What a strange place Europe is when men like this are reduced to waiting patiently in the anteroom of a young American of no importance whatever.
Varian Fry, the young American, was 32 when he arrived in Marseille early in the morning of Aug. 14, 1940—only two months after France's traumatizing defeat by the Nazis, and a full year and a half before Americans finally allowed themselves to get dragged into the war.
In that summer of 1940, high-level Nazis were talking among themselves about the need for a final solution to the Jewish question, but there is no evidence that anybody was seriously thinking of mass murder. Throughout the coming year, the German policy would remain one of emigration and resettlement.
What was possible when Fry arrived in Europe would, however, no longer be possible by the time Fry left Europe at the end of October 1941. By then, it wouldn’t only be the doors of the U. S. and other Western countries that were largely closed to refugees; the doors of departure from Europe would be shut too, and the Final Solution would be underway.
These are the circumstances in which a
New Yorkintellectual led what we know to have been the most determined and successful private American rescue operation during World War II. At a time of tragic American apathy about the refugee crisis in Europe, Varian Fry was assisted locally in his struggle by other singular and similarly non-Jewish Americans: the late Miriam Davenport Ebel, Mary Jayne Gold, Charles Fawcett, and LeonBall, as well as the late righteous consul Hiram Bingham IV.
Banding together with Jewish and non-Jewish refugees from the Third Reich, as well as early French opponents to Vichy, this tiny group, with erratic assistance from colleagues in
New York, may have helped to save as many as 2,000 people: Marc Chagall, Max Ernst, Jacques Lipchitz, Heinrich Mann, Franz Werfel, Alma Mahler Werfel, André Breton, Victor Serge, André Masson, Lion Feuchtwanger, Konrad Heiden, Marcel Duchamp, Hannah Arendt, Max Ophuls, Walter Mehring, Jean Malaquais, Valeriu Marcu, Remedios Varo, Otto Meyerhof… The list—Fry’s list—goes on and on.
“There is a fire sale on brains going on here, and we aren’t taking full advantage of it,” an American official in
Lisbontold Fry in August 1940, long before the Holocaust became established as a metaphor. Even if many of the names on Fry’s list have faded into relative obscurity, the list as a whole represents much of the intelligentsia of Europe at that time; the population shifts Fry helped produce would have major ramifications for American culture.
Though Fry was not specifically concerned with saving Jews—and indeed the German and Austrian anti-Nazi émigrés in France then seemed the most vulnerable of all, whether Jewish or not—Fry became in 1998 the first American singled out to be honored as a Righteous Among the Nations by Israel’s Yad Vashem, the Jerusalem memorial to the Holocaust.
Many basic facts about the man and his mission are still unfamiliar even to scholars, while some of what is “known” is in fact erroneous or misleading. Furthermore, there have been no attempts as yet to place the rescue effort in its full historical context.
Filling some of these gaps and drawing on extensive research and over one hundred and fifty interviews conducted for the author’s upcoming feature documentary, And Crown Thy Good: Varian Fry in Marseille, this account of the mission will lead naturally enough to some fundamental questions about what we are to make of it, what still remains unknown, and whether the story is more than a mere footnote, however culturally significant, in the history of the Holocaust.
magazine, March 2009: Bingham's List
This article, beginning with its misleading title, does not serve the memory of a good man
a letter to the editor was sent by Annette Riley Fry, Sylvia Fry-Severino, and Pierre Sauvage [pending]
World War II
magazine, March 2008: Rescue Mission to Vichy:
American Varian Fry saved a generation of France's greatest artists from the Nazis
The swashbuckling Charles Fernley Fawcett
Varian Fry et le Centre américain de secours par Pierre Sauvage (in French)
Mary Jayne Gold, with excerpts from her published memoir Crossroads
which chronicles her participation in the rescue effort
You Must Not Peek Under My Sunbonnet,
the first peek at Mary Jayne Gold's delightful, still unpublished memoir of her early years
Americans Who Cared and why we should care about them
Tribute to Miriam Davenport Ebel,
Varian Fry's close aide who died September 13, 1999, at the age of 84
An Unsentimental Education, Miriam Davenport Ebel's memoir of 1940
The Indomitable Lisa Fittko
A Hero Of Our Own: The Story of Varian Fry, a biography (2001) by Sheila Isenberg
A Quiet American: The Secret War
of Varian Fry, a biography (1999) by Andy Marino
Interview with Andy Marino
Some of the 2,000 people helped...
Officers of the Emergency Rescue Committee
Crossroads Marseillethe movie project
Varian's War, 2001 Showtime movie, which purported to be about Varian Fry
The following need to be updated...
Chambon Foundation presentations
Other Varian Fry-Related Resources and Internet Links
Varian Fry Exhibit
Internet Links on righteous Gentiles
America and the Holocaust—a few recommendations
Varian Fry Photo Gallery [pending]
On-line video clips [pending]
The Varian Fry Institute is sponsored by the
Pierre Sauvage, President (contact information)
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